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非人力资源管理面试技术不专业?

来源:五百丁 作者:AmazonHR

Amazon前技术VP如何解剖技术面试.jpg


原文标题:非人力资源管理面试官不专业?专业的面试官?不够格~看Amazon前技术VP如何解剖技术面试。


Neil Roseman已经彻底厌倦了硅谷的那一套:只招最聪明最优秀的人才。他们说了千万次,实质上招聘依据还是直觉,文凭,GPA,名校背景,牛逼前公司,甚至是SAT分数。


作为一个亚马逊与Zynga(著名游戏公司)前技术VP,他面试了上百人,认为面试每个环节都应该一丝不苟,来深入挖掘实力、真实的成就、文化契合度,和领袖潜质。


Great interviewing is work. It takes time to prepare,conduct the interview and then de-brief in an effective way. If you don’t wantto do the work, don’t interview.


无准备,不面试


Once you form an initial impression of someone - whichusually happens within the first 60 seconds - you should spend the rest theinterview trying to invalidate that impression.


(质问你自己)你在60秒之内就会对一个人形成第一印象,但你要用剩下的所有时间来推翻你的第一印象。

The Right Way to Read Resumes& Design Questions


怎样看简历,设计问题?


While current wisdom suggests that resumes aren’t allthat important compared to what a candidate actually knows, Roseman arguesthere’s a lot to be gained through careful review.

相比简历,这个面试者真正的知识架构要更加重要。


The things that most teams have the least experience in is how to read aresume, identify the areas worth probing, and determining how to probe intothem.

这让人很吃惊,大部分团队不知道如何阅读简历、如何找到值得深挖的地方、并且怎样深挖出更多的信息。


While screening resumes, Roseman keeps an eye out forareas where he can push candidates. “I always look for things where they have ameasure of their success, especially if they make comparisons or usepercentages.” For example, "grew revenue by 50% or decreased downtime by30%."


在筛选简历时,Roseman 追问这些地方:


他们怎么衡量自己的成功、在哪里他们做出比较、使用百分比。比如,将营业收入提升50%或降低30%宕机时间。

 

 “You want tofind out what somebody really did, as opposed to just being an observer or aparticipant. Even at the greatest companies, there’s a gap between those whoget the most stuff done and those who don’t get much done. You need to try andfigure that out during an interview.”


要去发掘这个人切切实实做了什么,而不仅仅是参与了什么。即使在最好的公司,把大部分事情搞定的人和那些旁观者之间很不一样。你需要在面试中发现这些不同。


In many cases, this can be a litmus test for howclearly they think about themselves and their role as well. “They might thinkit sounds good to say 'I improved system availability by 50%', but if we’rehiring someone for a system engineering role, I need to know they actually didthat. In most cases with high level statements like this — which appear onresumes all the time — the person actually hasn’t done it or was just aparticipant, and understands very little. They won’t have a very clear answer.”The good candidates will be able to explain and backup their claims no matterhow far you drill down.


很多情况下,这也能测出候选人对自己和职位的认识。嘴上说说“我把系统可用性提高了50%”很好听,但是切切实实干了干活儿才是我真想知道的。


这样好听的话的背后,很可能这个人实际并没有起到这么大的作用,或者仅仅是参与其中,甚至搞不清楚整个流程。好的候选人应该能够支撑他们的言论,无论你挖掘得多深。


Great interview questions focus on specific examplesof the candidate’s unique contributions, actions, decisions and impact.Ideally, you want to:


好的面试问题集中在候选人专有的贡献、行为、决定和影响力上。理想地说,你需要:


Probe: give me an example…


试探:给我一个关于…的例子


Dig: who, what, where,when, why and how on every accomplishment or project


挖掘:每一个成就的时间,地点,人物,原因,为什么


Differentiate: we vs. I, good vs. great, exposure vs. expertise, participant vs. owner/leader,20 yard line vs. 80 yard line


区别:我们vs.我,优秀vs.卓越,了解vs.专家;参与vs.负责/领导

 

I look for past projects and accomplishments that seemto have enough weight and depth that I can apply STAR questions — STAR standsfor situation, task, actions and results.” Roseman subscribes heavily to anapproach called Behavioral Interviewing, in which STAR questions are a staple.They include:


Roseman会去寻找那些足够有分量和深度的项目按照 STAR 的方法进行提问—STAR 代表“情况”(Situation),“任务”(Task),“行动” (Actions) 和“结果”(Results)。具体问题就是:


What was the background of what you were working on?


你从事的这个项目的背景是什么


What tasks were you given?


你的具体任务是什么


What actions did you take?


你采取了怎样的行动


What results did you measure?


你取得了怎样的结果


Technical Questions& the Interview


技术问题与面试


All too often Roseman hears hiring managers begin aninterview by asking candidates to walk through their resume. “That is not ahighly valuable question to ask unless you’ve already decided you’re not hiringthis person,” he says. You can set a candidate at ease without this warmupsoftball. 


不要再让你的面试者自我介绍了,这个问题没什么价值。


Roseman recommends introducing yourself so they knowwhere you’re coming from, and clearly stating what his goal of the interviewis. “


Roseman推荐面试官做自我介绍。


After a quick intro, Roseman begins an interview withthe most hands-on technical questions. 

简单介绍之后,Roseman 会直接进入技术问题。


When asking a question, you have to know what to consider a very good,good, poor or very poor answer and why.


在面试中提出的问题,你需要非常清楚什么样的答案是好的或不好的答案,以及为什么。


To Roseman, this is the most important tenet ofcrafting smart interview questions. “One of the things that really pisses meoff is people asking questions that they don’t even have a good handle onthemselves,” he says. “They don’t have a good distinction between a greatanswer and a crappy answer. They decide to try out a new question they heardfrom somebody or make something up themselves."


Roseman认为这是面试设计中最重要的一环。“有一件事情我很无语,就是面试官提问,但是连他们自己也不知道如何回答,他们无法区分绝妙和糟糕的回答。他们只是为了尝试一下从别处听来的问题,或者自己瞎编一个。”

 

This is especially important today, when there areinfinite resources on the web for interview questions. Candidates can look uppast interview experiences on Glassdoor or Quora and have an inside track. Evenso, Roseman says it’s okay to borrow questions from these resources as long asyou make them your own. “Your whole team should sit down and discuss what’s agood coding question, what’s a good answer and why you should use this one.”


要知道,网络上的面试题库丰富。候选人完全可以从 Glassdoor 或者 Quora 等网站上得到大量信息。

(一场知道答案的面试该有多无聊,无异于老师上课读课本)


For example, Roseman often asks candidates topalindrome the words in a string, then digs a little deeper by asking them toimagine they’re on a limited memory machine and they have to do this in place.“You can always push them so they might have gotten one level of the answerfrom the web. If they’ve gotten all the levels then they’re pretty darn smart.”Again, the key is to start high-level and then begin to dig deeper. Even if acandidate has seen the question before, if you dig, you can learn something.


把网上的问题改成自己的原创,知道你自己知道为什么用这个问题为止。提出的问题要能从高处开始不断向下挖掘,即使应聘者曾见过这个问题,你的深入提问也能得到不一样的信息。


To create one-of-a-kind questions, he suggests askingcandidates how they would solve the kinds of problems your company actuallyfaces. “While at Amazon, I often asked a design question that’s based on therecommendation system — the ‘people who bought also bought feature.’ It’salways best if I cast this in terms of a product that people know. That way yousee if they’re both product focused and solution focused.”


而对于原创问题,Roseman 的建议是:直接问你们公司正在面临的难题。(可能还能问出点建设性的好点子,即使最后没有成功招聘)


在 Amazon 时,Roseman 经常会提一个关于”推荐”系统(根据用户的购买历史而向他们推荐他们更有可能会买的其他产品产品)的设计问题。Roseman 认为,一个人们都有所熟悉的产品的问题,能看出应聘者是否既关注产品又关注解决方案。

 

Roseman especially likes to press engineeringcandidates on product design. Great engineers should not simply be ordertakers, but actively part of product development. Design questions also allowyou to better understand how someone thinks. To get to the heart of thisability, Roseman drills candidates on past products they have been involved in,and may ask them to write a small portfolio management program. Roseman alsooften asks the candidate to walk through a more generic design question like“design an ATM/Elevator for blind people” or something more technical,depending on the role.


Roseman 尤其关注产品设计方面的问题。他认为,卓越的工程师不仅只会接任务,更应该能够参与到产品开发的过程中来。而设计上的问题则能让你得知应聘者的思考方式。Roseman 会让应聘者给他们曾参与过的项目写一个小的项目管理计划,或是提出一个通用的设计问题例如,怎样设计一台给盲人用的 ATM/ 电梯。


When it comes to soft skills and culture fit, Rosemanis a big fan of one question — he asks everyone, no matter the position: Do youconsider yourself lucky?


至于企业文化的契合和软技能,Roseman 有一个必问的问题是:你认为自己是个幸运的人吗?


 “If you look atwhat you’ve done, would you put yourself in the camp of people who say they’vebeen lucky in their career?” Roseman explains. “I find a lot of people who willsay I would have gotten that promotion but my manager cancelled my product, orthey find other reasons for failure. Those are the ones who say they don’tthink of themselves as lucky. I’m looking for the people who embody the phrase‘fortune favors the prepared.’ It’s the willingness to be ready and takeadvantage of every opportunity that presents itself. At a startup, this isparticularly valuable.”


他遇到过许多不认为自己是幸运的,那些人会抱怨,自己差一点就升职,可惜最后一刻被上级取消了自己在做的项目;或是会找到一些失败的其他原因。而 Roseman 要寻找的则是坚信”机会只给有准备的人”的求职者。他们懂得未雨绸缪,继而抓住一切能够展示自己的机会。对于创业公司而言这点尤其可贵。


Even if you know a candidate is a no-go 15 minutesinto an interaction, it’s important to get through all these phases of theinterview. “You want to do close to a full interview because it’s a small worldout there, and even if someone doesn’t get hired, my theory is it’s a goodthing if the person believes they just had a great interview, even if theydon’t get the offer.”


另外Roseman 坚持的一点是,不要轻易缩短面试的时间。即使你在 15 分钟的时候已经决定这不是个合适的候选人,也应该完成整个面试过程。对应聘者来说,他们依然会有所受益。


At the other end of the spectrum, if someone is aclear winner, selling them on the position at the end of the session iscritical. “You better do a good job both answering their questions andcommunicating your enthusiasm about the place and the opportunity,” saysRoseman. “I’ve been very clear with the people on my teams that even if theydon’t have an excitable personality, they have to be very positive about thecompany. If you can’t be, then don’t interview people.”


相反,如果这个应征者明显是这个职位的绝佳人选,结束时则应进一步增加他对职位的兴趣。在面试时,能够很好地回答应试者的问题并传达出你对公司的热忱是很重要的两点。

 

To keep this tendency front-of-mind, he’s set a moreexplicit bar: “The expectation is that the people you hire are better than whenyou were hired. So that in fact if you left and came back, you might not behired again in that position. You want to improve your overall bar up with eachhire.


最简单的衡量标准是:新招的人比你被招进来的时候要好,也就是说,如果你离开了再回来,可能就不会被选中了。你需要通过每一个新招进来的人,提升团队的整体实力和面试标准。换句话说就是:每一个新人都需要比团队平均水平要高。


Roseman uses this same logic to encourage quality referralsfrom current employees. “You better be good with referrals, and it’s alwaysnice to give referral bonuses,” he says. “It’s a lot cheaper than any othernetwork you’re going to use to hire people, and it’s the best way to get someof that already hired talent that has some experience.”


Roseman把同样的逻辑应用在鼓励高质量的内部推荐上面。


你需要擅长发起内部推荐,最好是要有推荐奖金。这比通过其它渠道招人要便宜多了。


Here’s a distilledlist of Roseman’s Rules:


Roseman技术面试技巧总结


Pick specifics out of a resume to determine what thecandidate actually did. Remember, you want people who get stuff done. Period.


通过深度提问来辨别应聘者的对项目的参与程度。

 

Make sure you have them write code! This is too oftenskipped.


现场写代码。


Dig into algorithms, data structures, codeorganization, simplicity.


探究算法,数据结构,代码组织和简洁性。


Ask a design question. See how people think about abigger picture problem.


通过设计类的问题考察其是否有全局思考的能力。


Make it tough but fun. Good developers want to knowthey’re talking to smart folks.


面试要有难度但也要有趣。优秀的研发人员只想和聪明人对话。

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